Smoke Documents

These studies, articles, and documents were researched while assembling the Stage Fog article for the Spring 2016 ASEPO newsletter. 

Following a brief ban on using theatrical fogs in Broadway and San Francisco Opera productions in the early 2000's, several studies were undertaken that established safe levels for theatrical fog, and its usage was again allowed. Several more studies have since been undertaken adding further clarification of safe practices.

As a result of the studies from almost two decades ago, the entertainment industry recommends against the use of fogging fluids containing Ethylene or Diethylene Glycols. Acceptable fluids proven to be very safe include Triethylene and Propylene Glycols, which serve not only the theatrical, but also the medical and pharmaceutical industries.

Click on the titles to view and download full documents.


1985 Colenutt Report

1989 The Smoke Report

1994 NIOSH Report

1997 ESTA-Cohen Report

1997 HSE Report for ESTA

1999 CSATF Safety Bulletin #10

2000 Moline-ENVIRON Report

2001 ENVIRON Report

2002 ESTA Report

2003 SHAPE-BCU Report

2003 American Chemistry Council Update

2004 Safety Issues for Glycol/Glycerol...Effects

2005 JIM Report

2006 ENVIRON Calibration Factors

2009 ESTA Report

2016 ENVIRON Calibration Factors and Time/Distance Guidelines

2018 ESTA Report

2019 AURA H&S Calibration Factors

2019 AURA H&S Final Calibration Factors

2019 Ramboll Calibration Factors

2019 CSATF Safety Bulletin #10

2019 Safety Bulletin #10 "Addendum A"


2001 Broadway Musicals

2002 San Francisco Opera

2011 Fire Training Incident


How to Monitor Glycol, Glycerol, and Mineral Oil

Glycol-Based Fluid SDS

Mineral Oil SDS

Smoke Fluid Selection Guide

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